Going forward, the forum must consider how developing countries could improve domestic resource mobilization amid falling trade revenues, how the global trade and investment regimes could be reformed, and how the voice of developing countries could be heard more clearly in global economic governance. While trade and integration had brought enormous benefits, some segments of society had missed out on their rewards, leading to increased doubts about progress.
A disruption of trade could reverberate around the globe as geopolitical tensions continued to rise.
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The international community must work together to enhance the resilience of economies and increase multilateralism, and in that regard, each country must play its part. Multilateral cooperation was critical, she said, stressing the importance of working together to level the playing field for all, avoiding inward-looking measures and addressing taxation issues, she said. The IMF would continue to provide policy advice, financial support, and capacity development, while also advocating for multilateral cooperation. The Fund supported policies that expanded opportunities and multilateral solutions, while also seeking to support low-income countries and small and fragile States.
To foster sustainable growth and a more inclusive global economy and technical progress, it was studying how trade and capital flows affected countries. The Fund also continued to deepen its analysis of structural reforms on growth, employment and income equality and would continue to support policies that stressed good governance, fostered cooperation, updated business environments and promoted competition.
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The international community must collaborate to find multilateral solutions to challenges, accelerate gains and improve living standard where the needs were the greatest. However, a difficult global environment had impeded individual and collective efforts and many implementation gaps remained. National efforts had been affected by such economic factors as low commodity prices and trade growth and volatile capital flows alongside political and environmental factors. Yet, he said, the global development agenda contained elements to reignite growth and a combination of national and international actions could change the trajectory.
The first priority of bolstered investments in sustainable development could stimulate global growth, but growth alone would not eradicate poverty. That would need more targeted measures, with social protection floors directly ameliorating the lives of the poor and vulnerable. The report offered options to address financing challenges related to such floors and underlined that policies and actions on investment and vulnerabilities must be gender-sensitive.
The development of integrated national financing frameworks was a promising sign, he said, underlining that national efforts must be accompanied by a supportive global environment and that many countries continued to rely on support, including ODA. He also advocated scaling up partnerships with the private sector, stressing that UNCTAD had a proven record of working in that regard.
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At the same time, he cautioned against turning away from calling out the risks of public-private partnerships, which must be studied in order to ensure they did not create debt burdens for future generations. Noting that the Addis framework included support for global trade as a way to increase investment in the Goals, he said it was critical to complement long-term investment — in resilience and sustainable infrastructure, for example — with measures to help the poor.
There were variety of options to finance social protection floors at the local level, including through fossil fuel subsidies, and he welcomed the proposal for the Task Force to review funding mechanisms for social protection and to report back with recommendations to the financing for development forum. He also welcomed efforts to broaden criteria for financing eligibility, noting with concern that ODA allocated to least developed countries had dropped, despite commitments to increase such aid.
While it was important to meet international commitments to refugees, resources spent in donor countries hosting refugees should not reduce funding for meeting the Goals in developing countries. In response to the growing demand for support in navigating the financing for development landscape, UNDP had carried out assessments to help Governments explore how to harness financial flows.
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Fiscal policy needed to play a greater role in addressing inequality and expanding the fiscal safety net. Sustainable and well-calibrated fiscal policy could lead to inclusive sustainable development and reduce inequality. Research had demonstrated that tax incentives and weak compliance had eroded the tax base across all regions. Fostering infrastructure investment was a priority, including climate-resilient infrastructure.
The fiscal requirements of meeting the Sustainable Development Goals could only be achieved by building more efficient and effective tax systems through multilateral approaches. It was important to acknowledge that countries were moving at difference paces and sequencing their reforms differently, and that social expenditures needed to be enhanced. Declining ODA was a cause for concern she stressed, highlighting that it continued to fall far short of commitments.
Improving the capacities of Governments to effectively structure private-public-partnership transactions was also vital. All actors must play their part, he said, understanding the importance of relevant international conventions, including the Paris Agreement. As the largest provider of ODA, bloc member States would continue their efforts. To achieve greater impact, he said, public resources must be used in a smarter way, including as a catalyst to mobilize more public and private funding. That plan also included the new European Fund for Sustainable Development, provisions for technical support and a focus on improving the investment climate through policy dialogue and cooperation.
IGOR CRNADAK, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina , said bold steps must be taken to bolster national steps, including fostering industrial development, and multilateral development banks must work more closely in areas such as fostering private-public partnerships.
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All countries must show a united front in tackling tax issues, including senior officials in international organizations. Among a range of actions, he said fiscal policies should take into account the characteristics of each country of concern. Discussions should focus on issues such as knowledge, productivity and competitiveness of all States, particularly least developed countries.
Existing efforts and assistance must be scaled up to implement the Sustainable Development Goals, addressing questions such as how to climate-proof related initiatives. Financial constraints and limited financial resources were inhibiting ongoing national efforts. In that regard, he asked private and donor communities to be more forthcoming in their support. Challenges included tackling institutional, financing and capacity constraints, he said, noting that the private sector had played a key role in development. To mobilize domestic resources, Nepal had widened its tax base by formalizing the informal sectors, and had created special economic zones.
Beyond traditional development finance, development partners should also fulfil ODA commitments, facilitate trade and encourage investment and technology flows. Urging a focus on prevention and pre-investment in addressing climate variability, he said foreign direct investment was needed, as were strategies with innovative models for pre-investment and legal institutional tools to foster investment in ways that promoted national priorities. He advocated dialogue to set out development priorities and respond to commitments made under the Addis Agenda.
Guatemala was committed to foster human sustainable development, notably through international cooperation and various modes of assistance. While acknowledging the work of IMF, the World Bank and others, he urged refining the definition of fragility to include the drivers of vulnerability in the Pacific, which included dependence on imported fossil fuels. Potential options for ocean finance were also critical. Middle-income countries should comprise all groups of developing nations, especially because as countries moved from low- to middle-income status, the assistance provided was reduced.
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He underscored the need to exchange experiences, improve coordination and focus the support of the United Nations development system, international financial institutions and others. He expressed concern that access to concessional finance was reduced as national incomes grew, and recalled the importance of technology transfer in the spirit of closing the economic and social gap.
Multilateral development banks must devise graduation policies that were sequenced and phased. There was also a need for more nuanced, transparent country classifications, beyond the per capita income criteria, while international engagement should be tailored to middle-income country needs. The Addis Agenda focused on how to serve those most in need, he said, emphasizing that tax issues in that regard had been examined.
Resources were being used to catalyse more investments, he said, noting that the Netherlands had made efforts in that area. Session 4. Session 5. TBD during seminar. Representatives from all four previous panels. German English. January 24 - 25, This portlet should not exist anymore. In recent decades, the global exchange of goods and services and the movement of people and ideas have led millions of people out of poverty.
However, globalization, open markets and international competition not only produce winners but also losers. In many countries social inequality is increasing. A few privileged groups have benefited disproportionately from economic growth, while many people feel left behind. According to the World Bank and the United Nations, inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean is particularly high by global standards.
Gallopin editor , El Futuro Ecologico de un Continente. Volume Il. A Semi-quantitative mathematical model of the interactions between ecological and socio-economic factors in the Chaco Province Argentina. Manuscript, Grupo de Analisis de Sistemas Ecologicos. Bariloche, Argentina.
Globalisation: the rise and fall of an idea that swept the world
Obstaculos y oportunidades para el desarrollo sustentable en America Latina. Ecological prospective for tropical Latin America. United Nations Uni- versity Press, Tokyo. Grupo de Andlisis de Sistemas Ecologicos, S. Bariloche, Rfo Negro, Argentina. Gomez, I.
Potencia l agrfcola de la America Latina. Volume I.
Grossman, R. Herrera, A. The new technological wave and the developing countries: Prob- lems and options. MacLeod editor , Technology and the Human Prospects. Frances Pinter, London. Kristrom, B. Maletta, H. Nochteff, H. Revolucion Tecnologica, Autonomfa Nacional, y Democracia. Perez, C.
http://burlat.dev3.develag.com/relevance-communication-and-cognition-second-edition.php Las nuevas tecnologfas: Una vision de conjunto.